The three most common types of spina bifida are:
Myelomeningocele – (My-Lo-Men-ing-O-seal)
Myelomeningocele is the most serious type of spina bifida and what most people are referring to when they say spina bifida. With this type of spina bifida, the spine does not properly close and a sac of fluid pushes through an opening in the baby’s back. When the sac pushes through, a section of the spinal cord and some nerves push through with it and are damaged. This type of spina bifida causes moderate to severe disabilities, such as problems with bowel and bladder function, loss of feeling in a person’s legs or feet, and loss of mobility in the legs.
Meningocele – (Men-ing-O-seal)
With meningocele, the spine does not properly close and a sac of fluid comes through an opening in the baby’s back. However, the spinal cord does not push through in the sac and so there is usually little or no damage to nerves. This type of spina bifida is not usually as severe but can cause minor disabilities.
Spina Bifida Occulta – (Uh-cult-a)
Spina bifida occulta is the mildest type of spina bifida and is sometimes called “hidden” spina bifida. With this condition, there is a small gap in the spine, but no opening or fluid sac pushing through. In most cases, the spinal cord and the nerves are normal. Because there are no obvious outward symptoms, often spina bifida occulta is not discovered until late childhood or adulthood. This type of spina bifida usually does not cause any disabilities.